Use keyboard shortcuts

When you are answering questions in a player, you can cut, copy, and paste using the keyboard. You also can use keyboard shortcuts to enter special characters and symbols. For example, if you enter:

\sqrt

the square root symbol appears:

Math courses questions also include a palette of symbols where you can enter the special characters by clicking an icon on the palette. See Use the math palette See Use the math palette for details on entering special characters and symbols from the palette in math courses.

Keyboard shortcuts are listed in the following tables:

Copy and paste shortcuts

Common operation symbols

Math function symbols

Greek letters

Copy and paste shortcuts

To copy text:

  1. Highlight the text you want to copy.
  2. Press and hold down the Control key.
  3. Press the c key
  4. Release both keys.

To cut text:

  1. Highlight the text you want to cut.
  2. Press and hold down the Control key.
  3. Press the x key
  4. Release both keys.

To paste copied or cut text:

  1. Place your cursor where you want to paste the text.
  2. Press and hold down the Control key.
  3. Press the v key.
  4. Release both keys.

Common operation symbols

To use this symbol... Enter this shortcut... For example
+  (plus) Plus sign on keyboard 2 + 3
-  (minus) Dash on keyboard 2 - 3
Plus or minus symbol(plus or minus) \plusminus 2 plus or minus 3
=  (equal) Equal sign on keyboard 2 squared = 4
Multiplication dot(multiplication dot) * (asterisk)

(For example: 2 * 3)

2 times 3 with a multiplication dot
x sign for multiplication (times sign) \times

(For example: 2 \times 3)

2 times 3 with an x symbol to indicate multiplication
Divided by symbol (divided by) \divide 2 divided by 3
<  (less than) Left angle sign on keyboard

(For example: 2 < 3)

2 less-than 3
Less than or equal to symbol (less than or equal to) < = (left angle sign and an equal sign)

(For example: 2 <= 3)

2 less than or equal to 3
<  (greater than) Right angle sign on keyboard

(For example: 3 > 2)

3 greater than 2
Greater than or equal to symbol(greater than or equal to) > = (right angle sign and an equal sign)

(For example: 3 >= 2)

3 greater than or equal to 2
Not equal to symbol(not equal) <> (left and right angle signs)

(For example: 3 <> 2)

3 not equal to 2

Math function symbols

To use this symbol... Enter this shortcut... For example
Fraction  (fraction)  / 

(Type the numerator, then a slash, then the denominator. For example: 2 /3)

2 over 3 in fraction form
Superscript (superscript) Shift up arrow on keyboard

(Type the Shift key, then the up arrow (up arrow on keyboard) to create a superscript box where you can enter a number.)

2 to the power of 3
Subscript  (subscript) Shift down arrow on keyboard

(Type the Shift key, then the down arrow (down arrow on keyboard) to create a subscript box where you can enter a number.)

2 followed by subscript 3
Superscript and subscript  (superscript and subscript) \supsub

(Creates a template where you can enter the base value in the box on the left, and the superscript and subscript in the boxes on the right.)

Use empty template boxes enter a whole number followed by a stacked fraction
(empty template)

2 followed by the fraction 3 over 3 (template with values)

Double subscripts  (double subscripts) \subsub

(Creates a template where you can enter a subscript in the box on the left, the base value in the box in the middle, and a subscript in the box on the right.)

A template for a subscript, the base number, and another subscript (empty template)

Subscript 3 followed by base value 2 followed by another subscript 3 (template with values)

Absolute value  (absolute value) \abs

(Creates a template where you can enter a value in the blue box.)

Absolute value template where you can enter the value between two vertical bars (empty template)

Example of absolute value of 2 (template with value)

Square root  (square root) \sqrt

(Creates a template where you can enter a value in the blue box.)

Square root template(empty template)

Square root of 2 (template with value)

Nth-root (Nth-root) \nrt

(Creates a template where you can enter the values in the blue boxes.)

Nth root templace(empty template)

Square root of the square root of 3 (template with values)

Left conditional arrow(left conditional arrow) \larrow

(For example, a \larrow b)

Example of a left conditional arrow
Right conditional arrow (right conditional arrow) \rarrow

(For example, a \rarrow b)

Example of a right conditional arrow
Biconditional arrow (biconditional arrow) \biarrow

(For example, a \biarrow b)

An example of a biconditional arrow in an answer
Vertical bar (vertical bar) \textbar

(For example: 5 \textbar 15)

5 vertical bar 15
Empty set (empty set) \empty

(For example: V = \empty)

V = empty set
Union (union) \cup

(For example: A \cup B)

The union of sets A and B
Intersection (intersection) \cap

(For example: A \cap B)

The intersection of A and B
Element of (element of) \element

(For example: A \element B)

A is an element of B
Not an element of (not an element of) \nelement

(For example: A \nelement B)

A is not an element of B
Subset of (subset of) \subset

(For example: A \subset B)

A is a subset of B
Not a subset of (not a subset of) \nsubset

(For example: A \nsubset B)

A is not a subset of B
Proper subset of (proper subset of) \propersub

(For example: A \propersub B)

A is a proper subset of B
Not a proper subset of (not a proper subset of) \npropersub

(For example: A \npropersub B)

Angle (angle) \angle

(For example: \angle ABC)

The angle of ABC
Logical AND (logical and) \and

(For example: A \and B)

A AND B
Logical OR (logical or) \or

(For example: A \or B)

A OR B
Logical NOT (logical not) \not

(For example: \not A)

NOT A
Equivalent (equivalent) Tilde on keyboard A is equivalent to B
Infinity (infinity) \inf

(For example: A = \inf)

A = infinity
Imaginary unit (imaginary unit) i on keyboard

(For example: a = bi = 0)

a + bi = 0
Euler's number (Euler's number) e on keyboard

(For example: e = 0)

e = 0
Gradient (gradient) \grad

(For example: \grad f = 2y)

The gradient of f = 2y
Partial derivative (partial derivative) \partiald

(For example, \partiald x)

Example of a partial derivative
Integral (integral) \int

(For example: \int f(x) dx

Integral f(x) dx
Definitive integral (definitive integral) \dint

(Creates a template where you can enter values in the blue boxes. For example 2 \dint 3)

Example of a definitive integral in the player
Overbar (over-bar) \bar

(Creates a template where you can enter a value in the blue box.)

An empty blue box with an overbar (empty template)

An x entered into the blue box to display x with an overbar (template with value)

Double overbar (double overbar) \dbar

(Creates a template where you can enter a value in the blue box.)

An empty blue box with two overbars (empty template)

An x entered into the blue box to display x with two overbars (template with value)

An icon showing an empty blue box with a hat symbol above (hat) \hat

(Creates a template where you can enter a value in the blue box.)

An empty blue box with a hat symbol above (empty template)

An x entered into the blue box to display x with a hat symbol above (template with value)

Greek letters

To use this letter... Enter this shortcut...
lowercase alpha lower-case alpha \alpha

lowercase beta lower-case beta

\beta
lowercase gamma lower-case gamma \gamma
uppercase delta upper-case delta \cdelta
lowercase delta lower-case delta \delta
lowercase epsilon lower-case epsilon \epsilon
lowercase eta lower-case eta \eta
lowercase theta lower-case theta \theta
lowercase lambdalower-case lambda \lambda
lowercase mulower-case mu \mu
lowercase pilower-case pi \pi
lowercase rho lower-case rho \rho
lowercase sigmalower-case sigma \sigma
uppercase sigmaupper-case sigma (summation) \sum
summation with limits fields (summation with limits) \lsum (Example of lsum)
lowercase tau lower-case tau \tau
lowercase philower-case phi \phi
phi variant phi variant \vphi
lowercase chilower-case chi \chi
lowercase psi psi \psi
lowercase omega lower-case omega \omega

¨

See also:

Use the math palette

Use the on-screen keyboard

Use the player with JAWS